Month: January 2005

January 25, 2005

CITY OF PALOUSE
REGULAR COUNCIL MEETING-DRAFT ONLY

January 25, 2005

CALL TO ORDER: Mayor Michael Echanove called the Council Meeting to order at 7:00 PM

ROLL CALL: Council members present were: Norm Schorzman, John Sell, Jeff Snook, Linda Dillard, Dave Willmore, and, Rick Wekenman. Absent: Steve McGehee. Also present were: Joyce Beeson, Clerk-Treasurer; Bev Pearce, Deputy City Clerk Randy Zehm, Police Chief; Linda Snook; Janet Barstow; Greg Partch; Pete Hertz; Thinh Nguyen.

 

 

APPROVAL OF MINUTES: Council Member Wekenman requested the following corrections to the minutes: Open Forum- B. Residents to Residence ; Police Department Report-“The chief said he tried to pinpoint where the water was coming from but as is does ( add: not ) leak all the time….; New Business: 2005 projects-#8. The city owns a lot on ( correction-East ) Main Street. Old Business A. (correction): may re-vote on the issue or withdraw the motion that was voted secretly; The (add: mayor) restated the ….; Council Member Wekenman stated….; “the majority of the finance committee was against the wage freeze , and said the committee….. Jeff Snook MOVED to approve the amended minutes of the Regular Council Meeting of January 11, 2005. Linda Dillard seconded the motion and the motion carried unanimously.

 

OPEN FORUM :

  1. Greg Partch- Local Government Funding

County Commissioner Greg Partch began by explaining the intent of Whitman County to contest Initiative 747. The initiative as well as I695 removed funding to cities in the state by decreasing the re-licensing fee for vehicles. The effect of this is a large decrease in funds which greatly affects smaller towns and cities in rural Washington. The cities and towns many times cannot afford the cost of putting a new levy on the ballots. Partch stated that in even number years the county pays the whole cost putting a levy on the ballot and in odd number years the cost is split between the county and the city. The county commissioners are working with King County to repeal I747. He continued describing the different issues that can be contested, different taxing districts are putting up small portions of money to help with the cost of the repeal. Commissioner Partch was asking the City of Palouse for a support letter. Providing this letter makes the city a “Friend of the Court” and there is no cost to the city. Council Member Wekenman asks if the support letters can come from anybody. Partch said yes, all taxing districts are encouraged to write a support letters as well as individuals. A law firm will assess all the letters and may ask for additional information if needed.

Commissioner Partch continued with discussing other items such as the WACERT list. He stated that Palouse is ranked #2 on the list, with three projects. In order to be considered for funding your projects must be on the list. The City of Palouse has received funding in the past. The Palouse Cove road project is basically done. The project ran one month behind schedule, which is why the road was not paved. In the meantime, the road will stay in its current condition until May, with some light grading. Partch explained that more frequent grading is not done because there is only 2 inches of gravel on top. The road condition is monitored and he stresses that people need to drive the posted speed limit on the road. Council Member Willmore asked Mr. Partch how projects on the WACERT list are ranked. Partch replied that it is based on how prepared and ready to go the project is, whether funding can be matched by the city, the size of the project, water and sewer projects rank higher. The mayor brought up the Solid Waste Management Plan for Whitman County. He read a brief summary; every town and city is mandated to have a solid waste plan. Commissioner Partch recommend the city read through the plan and make any changes or suggestions, he said there was a meeting next week to go over the plan. Council Member Willmore asked about rates, Partch replied that the rates will stay the same for the next two years, but there will probably be an increase after that. Commissioner Partch mentioned the recycling coordinator, Cindy Leper; she has worked hard to develop the program and is a good resource to visit with. Commissioner Partch reminded the council that he visits Olympia every other week and he can take with him any issues that they feel need to be brought up in Olympia; he is just a phone call away. Council Member Wekenman asked about the feedback on the Hazard Mitigation surveys. Partch stated that there will be a meeting next week on that subject.

Council Member Schorzman MOVED to approve the city to write a letter of support, contesting I747 and allowing the Mayor to speak on behalf of the city on this subject. Council Member Dillard seconded the motion. Council Member Willmore stated that he wants to look at the original initivative before making a decision. Council Member Sell said that the city can still prepare a letter. Council Member Willmore MOVED to table the issue until the next council meeting. Council Member Snook seconded the motion and the motion carried with one opposed vote from Council Member Wekenman.

 

PUBLIC WORKS REPORT : Written Report Submitted By Byron Hodges

Byron was not available to answer any questions. Council Member Willmore asked what the sewer plant hours are. The Mayor stated that they are 7AM to 930AM. But the sewer plant in general is open 24/7.

 

 

 

POLICE DEPARTMENT REPORT: Written report submitted by Chief Zehm

Chief Zehm has nothing to add to his report. Council Member Willmore asked the chief if he had any word on his grant application for a new vehicle. The chief said that he should hear something in the first couple weeks in February. The council member also asked about the plans for the Crown Victoria car. The chief said he has been discussing the options with the Mayor. The Mayor asked the chief about the concern of increase activity behind the Palouse Tavern. Chief Zehm said they have not noticed any thing different.

 

OLD BUSINESS:

  1. Scooter Ordinance Number 807

The Mayor entertained a motion to suspend the reading of the entire ordinance. Council Member Wekenman MOVED to suspend the reading ordinance Number 807. Council Member Willmore seconded the motion and the carried unanimously. The Mayor read briefly from the ordinance. This ordinance is to establish regulations for Motorized Foot Scooters within the City of Palouse. Council Member Schorzman MOVED to approve Ordinance # 807. Council Member Snook seconded. Council Member Wekenman asked if the rules apply to private property. Chief Zehm said no. Council Member Snook asked the chief about enforcement of this ordinance. The chief said education of the public will be through a newsletter to the students at the school, notices in the local papers, the city web site and notices posted around town. The motion carried unanimously.

 

TREASURER REPORT FOR 2004:

Clerk-Treasurer Joyce Beeson provided the council with a detailed finalized city budget for 2004. The city was able to come out ahead for 2004, by spending less then it took in. The balance of $3,178 will be forwarded to the 2005 budget. Joyce said she saw no reason why the city could not do the same for 2005. She recommends that the city increase the streets funds by 2006. The water fund may need more money in the next few years. The Mayor complimented Joyce on her constant hard work on managing the city funds. He stated that Joyce has completed the 2004 final report before the end of January. Clerk-Treasurer Beeson and Deputy Clerk Pearce informed the council that the code book has been sent off to Code Publishing for codifying. The Mayor had in his hand the contract for services to be signed. Council Member Schorzman MOVED to have the Mayor sign the contract. Council Member Wekenman seconded and the motion carried unanimously.

 

JOINT FIRE BOARD AND EMS UPDATE:

Council Member Wekenman began by stating that Council Member Snook is now the current chair for the JFB. Council Member Snook reported that the JFB has had an offer on a 1961 International Fire Truck in the amount of $1,000. Council Member Snook MOVED to accept the offer of $1,000. Council Member Schorzman seconded the motion. Council Member Willmore asked who owned the truck. Council Member Wekenman said the title is being searched for. Council Member Sell asked if the truck had been advertised. Joyce Beeson said yes, the correct procedure was followed and if the bid date has come and gone, it is acceptable to receive any offers that may come in after the date has passed. Council Member Willmore asked if the truck would go as is. Council Member Wekenman said yes. The motion carried unanimously. Council Member Wekenman gave a PSB update, last weekend 12-13 volunteers worked on putting up sheetrock on the ceiling, only the areas for the electrician were left open. The finish work will be done professionally. The in floor heating appears to be working well, some electrical and plumbing inspections need to be completed. The facility should be ready to house the vehicles in 5 to 6 weeks. Council Member Willmore asked if 5/8” sheet rock was being used. Wekenman said yes. Palouse Welding donated the use of a lift truck to help with the hanging of the sheet rock on the ceiling. Council Member Snook stated that there will be a change to the distribution of the JFB packets. Jill Griffin will be sending the packets via e mail, unless a board member needs it to be sent through the US mail.

 

NEW BUSINESS:

Deputy Clerk Pearce brought up the topic of a council workshop. The city pays into an insurance policy that provides workshops for the cities. The topic of the requested workshop is Public Officials Liability and Creating Balance Between Elected Officials and Administration. These workshops are to educate and give the council tools to have a well managed and directed public entity. The council discussed various days and times that all may be available to attend. Clerk Pearce was going to make the appointment and inform the council of the workshop date.

COMMITTEE REPORTS/REQUESTS:

STREETS & SIDEWALKS: Linda Dillard
No Report

Council Member Willmore asked about a changing the traffic on Whitman Street to a one way direction, in front of the old fire station and city hall. He stated that the road condition is poor and he blew a tire out that day. Council Member Sell stated that by law the railroad is responsible for the repairs to the track area. He continued to comment that with the state possible taking over ownership of the railroad lines in the future there may be hope of repair. Council Member Wekenman stated that the bulk of the funds would not be available until 2007. Chief Zehm stated that there would be problems with making Whitman a one way street, the banks access, redirecting traffic during events. Council Member Sell commented that one option may to pour concrete in between the tracks, as the city did on school house hill, H Street, then the railroad can come back in and set the ties.

FINANCE, PROPERTY & EQUIPMENT : Norm Schorzman
No Report

PARKS, CEMETERY & BUILDINGS : John Sell
No Report

The Mayor told the Council Member Sell that the Lions Club approached him about new windows in the Legion hall, above City Hall. Council Member Sell stated that this should be a maintenance issue and funds should come from building maintenance. There was discussion on how many windows were up there and it was determine there are three.

PERSONNEL & POOL : Jeff Snook
No Report

POLICY & ADMINISTRATION : Steve McGehee-Absent

No Report

WATER & SEWER : David Willmore
Council Member Willmore asked Clerk-Treasurer Beeson for a meeting to discuss the budget in more detail. He wants to have a better understanding of the funds.

POLICE, FIRE & SAFETY : Rick Wekenman
Council Member Wekenman wants to set up a committee meeting to discuss options for relocating the city police department.

 

MAYOR’S REPORT :
A.         Northwest Bicycle-April 23

The Mayor informed the council of the upcoming WSU bicycle race. This will be a regional event and there will be more attending. There is a preliminary planning meeting this week. The Mayor urged the Admin and Policy committee to work on an outdoor event policy; he reminded the council that Palouse has an increase of outdoor events. The Mayor has discussed with Byron purchasing new and updated barricades for the city. Byron did get a quote and for around $1300, there could be enough barricades purchased to cover the needs of the city. The Mayor also mentioned that there could be a possibility of the cost being shared by other groups in town, such as the chamber, as these barricades are not used exclusively by the city. Council Member Snook commented that he has done some research on the internet and there are a lot of options for different types of barricades. The cost of $1300 to $2000 seems to be the range. Council Member Willmore agreed that the cost sharing would be a good idea. Council Member Dillard mentioned that she would like to have a parade and a dance on July 4, as part of wedding plans for her family.

The Mayor read a proclamation from the FFA, stating February 19-26, 2005 as FFA Week. The Mayor asked for the council’s approval to sign the proclamation. Council Member Willmore MOVED that the mayor be allowed to sign and proclaim, February 19-26 as FFA Week. Council Member Snook seconded and the motion carried unanimously.

The Mayor stated that Paul Dorning from RC&D has an opening to work on the Fishers Addition sewer extension project. The Mayor feels now is the time to move forward on this project. Council Member Willmore has been given all available data on this project to get up to speed. The Mayor proposes that the next two weeks be spent on getting the package in order and DOE ready. Council Member Willmore agreed and stated that cost may be increased since last time this issue was looked at. The Mayor asked for this item to be put on the agenda for the next council meeting.

 

ALLOW PAYMENT OF BILLS: Rick Wekenman MOVED that the bills against the city be allowed.

Jeff Snook seconded the motion and the motion carried unanimously.

 

ADJOURN:    Dave Willmore MOVED to adjourn. Jeff Snook seconded the motion and the motion carried unanimously. The council meeting adjourned at 8:58 PM

 

The following vouchers/warrants are approved for payment:

Claims Paid                   Warrants: #   10885             through # 10886                         Payment: $461.00

Claims Paid                   Warrants: #   10886             through # 10901                           Payment: $7,634.12

 

 

APPROVED:________________________________   ATTEST:________________________________

 

January 11, 2005

CITY OF PALOUSE
REGULAR COUNCIL MEETING-DRAFT ONLY

January 11, 2005

CALL TO ORDER: Mayor Michael Echanove called the Council Meeting to order at 7:00 PM

ROLL CALL: Council members present were: Norm Schorzman, John Sell, Jeff Snook, Linda Dillard, Dave Willmore, Steve McGehee, and Rick Wekenman. Also present were: Joyce Beeson, Clerk-Treasurer; Bev Pearce, Deputy City Clerk; Byron Hodges, Public Works Superintendent; Randy Zehm, Police Chief; Greg Pearce; Linda Snook; David Caudle; Doug Willcox; Thinh Nguyen; Janet Barstow; Marc Van Harn.

 

APPROVAL OF MINUTES: Rick Wekenman MOVED to approve the minutes of the Regular Council Meeting of December 14, 2004. Jeff Snook seconded the motion and the motion carried unanimously.

 

OPEN FORUM :

  1. MARC VAN HARN-spring car show

Marc introduced himself and explained his current business involvements. He wishes to put together a car show on June 4, 2005. He asks for the city’s help in providing information as to permits and such to use the downtown streets to stage this event. He requested that two blocks be blocked off for this event, from highway 272 to Hall Street. He is organizing a beer garden and dance; this would be a one day event.

Council member Willmore asked Marc if the streets he was requesting to be blocked have been blocked for other events. Marc answered yes, Haunted Palouse, Palouse Days and Pedal Power Day. Marc also asked if the green strip across the street from the city park, where the old flat house used to be, could be used as a camping site. Council Member Willmore asks if more restrooms would be needed. Marc answered no; the event would not be big enough to bring in additional restrooms. The Mayor asks Byron Hodges and Chief Zehm if they had any concerns over this event. Both answered no. The Mayor then asked the council if there were any concerns from them, the answer was no.

  1. DAVID CAUDLE- report on men’s shelter

Pastor Caudle reported that the shelter currently has 3 men in residents at the Palouse Community Church’s shelter. These men have gone through the usual legal checks the shelter requires. The mayor thanked Pastor Caudle for his voluntary report.

  1. MARC VAN HARN – concern about activity on the street behind the bar

Marc has noticed an increase of people activity on the street behind the bar in the late evenings. He has been awoken by his dog barking at people on the street, this is more then usual and Marc stated that his dog general does not bark unless there is something going on. Chief Zehm stated that this area is patrolled, but the Police Department will step up there effort in that area.

 

PUBLIC WORKS REPORT : Written Report Submitted By Byron Hodges

Byron did not have to much more to add to his written report. He did state that the cherry deodorizer that the crew used in the sewer line that runs across the Bridge Street Bridge, cost $170 for a 5 gallon can. He continued to mention that the real solution was a new pump station on that line sometime in the future.

Council Member Schorzman asks Byron if a pump station would get rid of the odor. Byron replied that yes, sometime in the future a pump station would be needed.

 

POLICE DEPARTMENT REPORT: Written report submitted by Chief Zehm

Chief Zehm added to his report, he stated that with the colder weather approaching pet owners need to take extra measures to protect their animals. Owners should add extra blankets to the shelters outside for their pets; make sure a water supply is available and not frozen. The mayor asked the chief about the water leak above his desk. The chief said he tried to pinpoint where the water was coming from but as it does leak all the time, it’s hard to identify the location. Byron stated that he was not aware of this problem. Council Member Schorzman asked the chief about how to report on barking dogs. The chief stated that there is no written report. When a dog barks the complainant needs to call the police department right away. The police department actually has to catch a dog barking before any action can be taken. The chief stated that people should call any of the following numbers to report barking dogs: police department-878-1611; Whitcom-332-2521; 911. The chief also stressed that people should not wait until 1PM to report a dog that has been barking since 10PM.

 

JOINT FIRE BOARD UPDATE:

Doug Willcox provided the council with a status report on the Public Safety Building (PSB). Electrical, heating and plumbing is near completion. The building should be ready within the next few weeks to house the Fire and EMS vehicles. Volunteers will be working on the finish work on the inside of the building. The state electrical inspector required the project to put in electrical work in the meeting room area. This work was not going to be done until a later time. But due to the requirement this work was authorized by the facility committee. The budget was projected at $189,000. The current budget is at $194,202. There is discussion about putting on various fund raisers to cover the additional costs that have incurred on this project. There are plans to have an open house as soon as the building is finished. The mayor asked Doug about the status of the new fire vehicles. Doug said one vehicle is in the process of being modified and the second is on its way from Utah and should be in Palouse by the end of the month.

 

NEW BUSINESS:

  1. 2005 PROJECTS

The Mayor began to read a list of items for prospective project in 2005.

  1. West Main Street Property: complete purchase transaction from the railroad and define development plans for this property.
  2. Heritage Park: this project is near completion. The owner of Paulson Plumbing will be completing his work, Ackerman Heating will follow within 2 weeks, and Gropp Electric is on tap to finish up. Sheet rock will need to be put in place when the other work is done.
  3. Fisher’s Addition Sewer Collection System: There is support out there for this project.
  4. Fire Department: Completion of the Public Safety Building
  5. Improvement to sidewalks on Main Street from Mary Street down to the City Park
  6. The Palouse Police Department: The department is interested in moving to their own facilities, a possibility is one half of the old city hall/fire station location.
  7. Policy Issues: Open Burning Ordinance, Motorized Scooters, and Public Facilities, Council Member McGehee is chair for this committee.
  8. Main Street Lots: The city owns a lot on North Main Street, possible development ideas.
  9. New City Water Reservoir: This could be a ½ million dollar project.

This list provided by the mayor, Council Member Snook commented that item number 1, should be seriously considered. Marc Van Harn stated that perhaps the renovation of that property could be a community project, getting volunteers to do prep work on the land. Council Member Sell mentioned the sludge storage facility should be added to the list, as well a new restroom facility at the cemetery. Byron Hodges stated that the Public Works Department needs a new building. Council Member Willmore agreed. Joyce Beeson mentioned that there needs to continue maintenance on the City Hall Building. Marc Van Harn suggested some type of pathway that runs along Hwy 27 to Spokane Street, down past the grain elevators to Main Street. The Mayor stated that he has called the state several times about fixing the Bridge on Bridge Street, but no one has returned his calls. Council Member Wekenman mentions the deterioration of the river banks in a few places. The Mayor said that since the city is now a partner in the Hazard Mitigation program and Council Member is part of that process, his recommendation would be appropriate to the program. Council Member Willmore asked Deputy Clerk Pearce about the West side of the community center building, if any thought had gone into some type of improvement. Clerk Pearce stated that there have been meetings and a report given to her about the current condition of the building, but that the appearance of that side of the wall had not been discussed. She would bring up this issue with the structural engineer. The Mayor was asking if there was any updated information about the skate park, no one answered, he said he would touch base with the kids. The mayor reminded the council that the city has $25,000 from the sale of the Mary Street house; this fund can be used for any community development initiative.

 

OLD BUSINESS:

  1. Wage freeze secret ballot-RCW 42.30.060

The Mayor began this discussion by reading from a letter sent to council from city attorney Stephen Bishop. The letter states that the secret balloting that was done at the last council meeting was improper and the passage of the motion was invalid. The attorney further stated that the council may re-vote on the issue or motion to withdraw that was voted secretly. The Mayor asked Council Member McGehee, since he made the original motion, if it is the intention of the council to withdraw the original motion. Council Member Willmore agreed to a re-vote. The restated the options for the council: either they can withdraw the original motion or they can re-vote. Council Member McGehee MOVED to withdraw the original motion to vote by secret ballot on the Wage Freeze issue. Council Member Willmore seconded the motion and the motion carried unanimously. Council Member McGehee then asked for a public vote on freezing wages. Council Member Schorzman MOVED to freeze wages for the 2005 year. Council Member McGehee seconded the motion. The mayor asked for discussion. Council Member Willmore stated that the personnel committee was 100% against the wage freeze and the majority of the finance committee was for the wage freeze. The committee meetings don’t seem to be of value. Council Member Wekenman asked the council members, what was the reason for the wage freeze. Council Member Schorzman, chair of the finance committee, stated that with the proposed projects the mayor stated earlier the city cannot afford any wage increases. He stated that even though the city has the funds, it continues to spend more money then it takes in. Dave Caudle asked if the personnel committee is against the wage freeze then why vote. Council Member Schorzman stated that there were several committee meetings and the votes kept changing. Council Member McGehee said that the motions do not have to come from the committees. Dave Caudle stated that if the personnel committee is against the wage freeze and offered a solution the to funding and the majority of the finance committee was against the wage freeze, it is hard to understand the issue. Linda Snook commented that as a Washington State employee she has not received a pay raise in four years. She takes offense at the city putting their projects before their employees. The mayor stated again that he supports the selective wage increases for 2005. Byron stated that he disagrees with Council Member McGehee, if the mayor appoints committees to research the issues, then the council, as it has done in the past 15 years he has worked for the city, should do the committees the courtesy of agreement. Dave Caudle asked the question, how can the committee chair speak against the entire committee he is on. Linda Snook asked for an answer to this question. Council Member Schorzman stated that he could not answer that question because it could implicate someone. Linda Snook ask for an answer and Council Member Schorzman said he could not answer the question. Discussion ended that the mayor asked for a vote, after the verbal vote was taken, Deputy Clerk asked for a show of hands, For the wage freeze: Council Members Sell, Schorzman, Willmore and McGehee. Against the wage freeze Council Members Snook, Wekenman and Dillard. The motion carried.

 

  1. Motorized Foot Scooters Ordinance

Chief Zehm reviewed a couple of points of the ordinance. There was a general discussion, about , age, location of riding the scooters. The ordinance will be put on the agenda for adoption at the next council meeting.

 

COMMITTEE REPORTS/REQUESTS:

STREETS & SIDEWALKS: Linda Dillard
No Report

FINANCE, PROPERTY & EQUIPMENT : Norm Schorzman
No Report

PARKS, CEMETERY & BUILDINGS : John Sell
No Report

PERSONNEL & POOL : Jeff Snook
No Report

POLICY & ADMINISTRATION : Steve McGehee
Council Member McGehee stated that the committee has 2 issues to address. But prior to giving his report he would like to clarify what he stated earlier in the council meeting in regards to Dave Caudles question. He said that understood Dave’s question in regards to how a motion comes before the council floor. He further explained his answer that he explained how motions were moved through council.

  1. Open Burn Ordinance: It was unanimous in the committee meeting that the City of Pullman’s current burning ordinance is too severe to be applied to Palouse. The committee agreed that some type of action does need to be taken. McGehee would like council to agree, that when we go forward with this ordinance, and six months down that road that council changes their minds on the ordinance. All council members agreed to some type of open burning ordinance. Council Member Sell agreed but wants all items to be considered before passing the ordinance.
  2. Restriction of Council Wages

Chair McGehee contacted former Mayor Robert Kramer to discuss past council members payment. At the time Kramer was mayor the council was paid on the basis of attendance. It was decided in committee that the state has in place remedies for council members. He continued to state that it is obvious if someone chooses to become a council member they are doing as part of their civic responsibility. Council Member Wekenman stated that council members are willing to cash their council checks, but not willing to give a 50 cent raise to the city staff. Council Member Wekenman MOVED to pay council members based on their attendance at council meetings. The mayor asked for a second. There was no second and the motion failed.

 

WATER & SEWER : David Willmore
No Report

POLICE, FIRE & SAFETY : Rick Wekenman
No Report

 

MAYOR’S REPORT :
The mayor was contacted by Mike Milano about the signs for the Scenic By-Way. They are ready to be put up and the mayor suggested that Mike speak to Byron about the locations of the signs. The mayor thanked Mike Milano for his hard work on the Scenic Byway Committee.

The Mayor received a letter from Whitman County Admin. Services in regards to the Criminal Justice Service contract. Because of an office delay the contract fees will be the same as 2004.

 

ALLOW PAYMENT OF BILLS: Jeff Snook MOVED that the bills against the city be allowed.

Norm Schorzman seconded the motion and the motion carried unanimously.

 

ADJOURN:    John Sell MOVED to adjourn. Jeff Snook seconded the motion and the motion carried unanimously. The council meeting adjourned at 8:53 PM

 

The following vouchers/warrants are approved for payment:

Claims Paid 12/29/04                 Warrants: # 10822           through # 10831                   Payment: $2,219.18

Claims Paid 12/30/04                 Warrants: # 10834            through # 10851                    Payment: $6,299.44

Claims Paid 01/12/05                 Warrants: # 10852             through # 10884                    Payment: $30,937.79

Payroll Paid                               Warrants: #5666                 through # 5691                      Payment: $27,005.45

Claims VOID                             Warrrants: #10832              through # 10833

 

 

APPROVED:________________________________   ATTEST:________________________________